Many cities are experiencing high levels of growth, particularly in parts of Asia and the Pacific, Africa and Latin America. As countries urbanize, populations and economies become concentrated in urban areas, leading to changes in lifestyle and work. Many cities, however, are struggling to sustainably manage this transition. It is often a challenge to provide access to land and housing, support basic livelihoods, supply municipal services and implement longer-term planning and policy decisions.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development maps out a path towards greater sustainability. The 2030 Agenda builds upon the Millennium Development Goals and calls on countries to achieve 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) over the next 15 years, through efforts to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change by 2030.
The SDGs explicitly acknowledge the important role that cities play in the pursuit of sustainable development. This is particularly the case with Goal 11, which aims to “make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”. At the same time, cities will play a critical role in the 2030 Agenda, because much of the action required will be taken at the local level. For example, cities are critical actors in the implementation of SDG 6, which calls for the “availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”; SDG2, which seeks to end hunger and achieve food security; and SDG 3 which focuses on “ensuring healthy lives and promoting wellbeing for all at all ages”. In addition to these interlinkages, cities will also play a pivotal role in the fight against climate change and the implementation of commitments made by governments in Paris at COP-21 of the UNFCCC.
Already, many cities are formulating and implementing innovative policy, projects, programmes and other initiatives designed to achieve sustainable growth and development. These initiatives need to be shared. New approaches to urban sustainability, proven strategies and tested best practices should be fostered and promoted across the region.
In this way, the Urban SDG Knowledge Platform is a unique mechanism for exchanging ideas and experience. The Platform aims to support cities in meeting the challenges of sustainable urban development by fostering knowledge sharing, dissemination and cooperation, and advancing urban innovation. Through the Platform, members and visitors can share and discuss, learn and collaborate for a sustainable urban future.
GOAL 1. NO POVERTY
End poverty in all its forms everywhere
SDG 1 seeks to eradicate extreme poverty, reduce the proportion of people living in poverty, ensure access to basic services, and build the resilience of the poor.
Cities can play a key role in addressing these challenges, bringing a multi-dimensional and dynamic approach to creating innovative, on-the-ground solutions. Poverty is a local issue that requires local solutions, and cities are best placed to understand the driving forces behind poverty in their areas and the needs of the community. Local governments can also identify vulnerable and poor communities and target resources to their needs. The provision of basic services, such as water and sanitation, are the responsibility of local governments and key factors in reducing poverty in our cities. Local governments have a key role to play in strengthening resilience and protecting development gains by ensuring city residents and communities have the resources and capacities to better reduce, prevent, anticipate, absorb and adapt to a range of shocks, stresses, risks and uncertainties.
The policies related to this goal in this platform are examples from cities that demonstrate the potential to improve the wellbeing of communities through practical, results-driven poverty reduction practices.
By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day
By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable
By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance
By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions
Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions
GOAL 2. ZERO HUNGER
End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture
SDG 2 focuses on ending hunger and malnutrition, increasing agricultural productivity and ensuring food production systems are sustainable.
Municipalities in both urban and rural areas are key policy-makers in pursuing food security and sustainable agricultural practices. Local governments in rural areas can apply practices to support local agricultural production and promote local food chains. Water and transportation policies are crucial factors in this. Local governments in urban areas can implement policies that reduce food waste, facilitate food transport and availability in communities and support urban agriculture production.
Child malnutrition can be effectively monitored and addressed by local governments in both rural and urban areas through school nutrition and educational programs. As populations continue to grow and become increasingly urbanized, sustainable agricultural practices that make effective use of available land, both rural and urban, will be vital tools in achieving food security and a healthy population.
The policies related to this goal in this platform demonstrate practices that promote food security, improved nutrition and sustainable agriculture in our member cities.
By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round
By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment
By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality
By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed
Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries
Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility
GOAL 3. GOOD HEALTH AND WELL-BEING
Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
SDG 3 seeks to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio and end preventable deaths of newborns and under-five children, end AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and water-borne diseases, halve deaths and injuries due to road traffic accidents, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services and reduce the number of deaths and illnesses due to pollution and contamination of air, water and soil.
Local governments are able to identify health challenges in a community and raise awareness to combat mortality rates. Local governments can assist areas of need in locating health services, providing needed medical support to communities, and coordinating prevention and response activities across departments. Local governments can implement traffic safety standards as well as cleaner air and water standards to decrease the impacts of pollution on the air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil we grow our food in.
The policies related to this goal in this platform show what can be accomplished in improving the health of a community when appropriate policies and practices are put in place at the local level.
By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births
By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births
By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being
Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol
By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination
Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate
Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all
Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States
Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks
GOAL 4. QUALITY EDUCATION
Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
SDG 4 aims to ensure free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education for all, access to quality early childhood development, increase the percentage of youth and adults with relevant technical and vocational skills for employment, build and upgrade education facilities, and promote education for sustainable development.
Local governments are responsible for education in their localities in many countries and are well-placed to identify local educational needs and trends. Primary and secondary education can be made equally accessible to all students regardless of gender or class, and vocational training can be tailored to the employment prospects in a community. Good policy can ensure that vocational training and educational opportunities are in line with local labor market opportunities to maximize employment and output. Such policies can also empower and raise the prospects of vulnerable communities in a locality.
Polices promoting inclusive and equitable quality education for all groups in cities are available in this platform.
By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes
By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education
By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university
By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship
By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations
By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy
By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development
Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all
By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries
By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States
GOAL 5. GENDER EQUALITY
Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
SDG 5 aims to end all forms of discrimination, violence, and harmful practices against women and girls, ensure women’s participation in and opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life, provide equal rights to economic resources for women, and strengthen policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality.
Local governments can take a leading role in identifying and addressing violence and harmful practices and discrimination against women in their communities. Local governments can lead change by promoting gender equity within government positions and supporting the election of women to positions of power. Laws can be passed to prohibit harmful practices against women and girls, such as forced marriage and genital mutilation, and educational campaigns can raise awareness and promote a change in mindsets.
The policies related to this goal in this platform are working to eliminate the gender barrier and foster equality and an end to discrimination and violence against women and girls in our member cities.
End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere
Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation
Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation
Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate
Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life
Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences
Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws
Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women
Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels
GOAL 6. CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION
Ensure availablility and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
SDG 6 aims to achieve equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water, improve sanitation, reduce pollution and increase recycling and safe refuse, increase water-use efficiency, integrate water resources management, and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management.
Cities are responsible for the provision of safe drinking water and good sanitation practices, providing these basic services to communities. Many urban communities lack access to basic services and cannot afford or access quality water supplies. Local governments can address these challenges through practices that improve water quality and implementing sustainable waste management practices.
There are a broad range of tools which can be utilized by local government to pursue sustainable water resource management. Local governments can contribute to water-use efficiency by ensuring sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater, implementing integrated water resource management policies and initiatives, and introducing wastewater management, recycling and reuse measures. By managing the collection and treatment of municipal wastewater, local governments can make vital contributions to improving sanitation and public health.
These practices and policies have been put in place by cities to improve the quality and access to clean water and improved sanitation practices.
By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
GOAL 7. AFFORDABLE AND CLEAN ENERGY
Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
SDG 7 encourages the implementation of policies that ensure universal access to affordable and modern energy services and increase the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.
Local governments have a unique perspective into the energy needs and gaps in access for communities, and can directly address energy inefficiency challenges by investing in energy efficient buildings and greening government institutional practices. “Smart city” technologies and good urban transport policies can contribute to lowering emissions and greening urban areas.
The policies related to this goal in this platform demonstrate the potential to improve energy efficiency and expand energy access in urban communities.
By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support
GOAL 8. DECENT WORK AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
SDG 8 promotes job creation, decent work and equal pay for work of equal value, reducing the number of youth unemployed, eliminating child and forced labor, protecting labor rights and promoting safe working environments, and promoting sustainable tourism to create jobs and promote local culture.
Local governments understand their local economies and are well-positioned to target particular industries or services that can lead to more and better jobs. Local governments can identify vulnerable groups at more risk of forced or unfair labor practices, including children, and institute programs and policies that encourage youth to stay in school. Cities can promote tourism and sustainable practices in the industry to ensure that cultural heritage is maintained and protected while also creating job s and supporting local livelihoods.
The policies related to this goal in this platform are examples of how more sustainable and better economic growth and job creation can be supported and led by government policy.
Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries
Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors
Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services
Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead
By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment
By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all
By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization
By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization
GOAL 9. INDUSTRY, INNOVATION AND INFRA
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
SDG 9 urges governments to develop reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure that is affordable and accessible to all, increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises and their integration into value chains and markets, and increase access to ICT and internet.
Infrastructure is a core concern of any city. Good planning and policy enable governments to link city centers with outside regions and facilitate positive impacts that come with good infrastructure, such as better economic results and increased access to goods and services for citizens. Infrastructure can support the development of small-scale businesses and industries. Local governments can also close gaps in internet and ICT access by providing public spaces that are connected, such as libraries or schools.
The policies shown here are working to close gaps in access and facilitate the development of resilient and sustainable infrastructure in their cities.
Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all
Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries
Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets
By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities
Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending
Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States
Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities
Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020
GOAL 10. REDUCED INEQUALITIES
Reduce inequality within and among countries
SDG 10 aims to reduce inequality by achieving income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a higher rate than the national average, promote social, economic and political inclusion, eliminating discriminatory policies and practices, adopting fiscal, wage and social protection policies and migration policies that facilitate safe and responsible mobility of people.
Local governments can contribute to reducing inequality in their cities by identifying and targeting resources towards underserved and vulnerable areas while ensuring equal opportunity in their own employment practices. Cities can issue policies that prohibit discrimination, protect wages and promote social inclusion through education and social programs. Governments can ensure that all communities have equal and fair access to public services, and level the playing field for more vulnerable communities in this regard.
The policies related to this goal in this platform demonstrate the potential to institute policies and practices that promote equality and fairness throughout a city.
By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average
By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations
Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies
Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements
Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes
By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent
GOAL 11. SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND COMMUNITIES
Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
SDG 11 is focused on cities, with targets to ensure access to safe and affordable housing and basic services, upgrade slums, expand public transport, promote inclusive and sustainable urbanization, protect cultural and natural heritage, reduce the number of casualties due to disaster, and increase resilience.
Urban planning processes that are participatory and promote social cohesiveness and inclusion are becoming more vital, and decisions made around public transportation and access to affordable and safe housing are crucial aspects of this. Cities need to work to ensure that slums and informal settlements are provided with basic services. Resilience throughout the city should be developed in the face of climate challenges. Local governments can promote healthier, more active lives for their citizens through the development of green spaces, reducing emissions in the process. Cities also need to foster linkages between urban, peri-urban and rural areas, as each is an important partner in ensuring food security, natural resource sustainability and resilience for all communities.
The policies related to this goal in the Platform illustrate what can be accomplished when cities engage with multiple stakeholders to develop policies that promote sustainability and inclusive and safe communities.
By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management
By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities
Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, per-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning
By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials
GOAL 12. RESPONSIBLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION
Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
SDG 12 is focused on the efficient use of natural resources, reducing food waste at the consumer and retail level, the environmentally-sound management of chemicals and wastes and 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) principles, sustainable public procurement practices, and raising awareness around sustainable lifestyles.
Local governments can pursue policies and practices that encourage sustainable consumption and production through the built environment, supply chains, land management, education and awareness, and the market. Cities can help communities transition to more sustainable consumption patterns of food and water, minimizing waste by pursuing recycling programs and composting organic waste. Industries and their production patterns can be made more efficient and sustainable through changes in both mindset and behavior and policies that minimize waste and reduce emissions.
Local governments can play a key role in changing the consumption patterns of residents by providing incentives and disincentives to reorient demand patterns and encourage sustainable choices. By working together with the community, local governments can improve citizen relations and facilitate collaborations that can lead to sustainable outcomes. For example, by encouraging people to recycle more, including through incentive schemes, the amount of waste going to landfill can be reduced. Local governments can also lead the way in this change by ensuring their procurement practices are sustainable and promote sustainability in the businesses partnered with.
The policies related to this goal in this platform have been implemented by cities in the pursuit of more sustainable consumption and production patterns.
Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries
By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses
By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse
Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle
Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities
By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature
Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production
Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities
GOAL 13. CLIMATE ACTION
Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
SDG 13 focuses on limiting climate change and its impacts by strengthening resilience and adaptive capacities, raising awareness and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation and impact reduction and effective climate change-related planning and management.
Cities are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and climate-related hazards, and it is essential that local governments take the necessary steps to adapt to these changes and increase resilience. Already-vulnerable communities are even more vulnerable to climate impacts, and as such it is critical that the resilience and disaster preparedness of these areas is strengthened and improved upon. Cities have often led the way in climate policy, and local governments should continue to lead by example by instituting policies that mitigate and adapt to impacts while ensuring that marginalized communities are not left behind. Cities harness immense potential to drive reductions in GHG emissions through policies and initiatives that lower energy use – particularly in the sectors of transportation, and the built environment.
The policies here showcase good practices in efforts to respond to and lessen the impacts of climate change on communities and cities.
Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities
* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.
GOAL 14. LIFE BELOW WATER
Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
SDG 14 seeks to protect our marine resources and oceans by reducing marine pollution, sustainably managing and protecting marine and coastal ecosystems, conserving at least 10 percent of coastal and marine areas, and providing access for small-scale fishers to marine resources and markets.
Significant amounts of marine pollution are the result of land-based activities, and local governments can take steps to limit their pollutants by better management of sewage and wastewater, which is often directly discharged into oceans and rivers. Better treatment practices of sewer and industrial waste can help protect marine ecosystems and reduce coastal zone pollution. Policies can encourage more sustainable fishing practices and protect access to marine zones for small-scale fishers, balancing these needs with the needs to conserve marine ecosystems.
Cities have implemented the practices in this platform to promote better and more sustainable practices in our relationship with the oceans and marine ecosystems.
By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution
By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels
By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information
By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation
By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism
Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries
Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets
Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in UNCLOS, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of The Future We Want
GOAL 15. LIFE ON LAND
Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosytems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
SDG 15 is focused on protecting natural resources and ecosystems through sustainable conservation practices and management, restoring degraded forests, stopping the loss of biodiversity, and integrating ecosystems and biodiversity values into national and local planning processes.
Local governments can make biodiversity and ecosystems considerations an integral component of urban planning strategies and ensure that community views are solicited and incorporated into such decisions. Cities can protect natural spaces in their communities, protecting biodiversity, preserving green spaces and creating biodiversity corridors, which in turn lower emissions and mitigate climate impacts.
The policies related to this goal in this platform have been implemented to preserve natural ecosystems and biodiversity through sustainable practices and community participation.
By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements
By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally
By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world
By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development
Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed
Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products
By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species
By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts
Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems
Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation
GOAL 16. PEACE, JUSTICE AND STRONG INSTITUTIONS
Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all Levels
SDG 16 aims to reduce all forms of violence, related death rates and corruption, develop accountable and transparent institutions and participatory and representative decision-making, and the protection of public access to information and fundamental freedoms.
Local governments can develop policies that target areas of vulnerability in a community and work to address these with the aim of lowering rates of violence. Governments must lead by example in expunging corruption and ensuring transparency throughout all areas of work, increasing public access to information and improved participatory processes in decision-making.
The policies related to this goal in this platform demonstrate ways in which cities can lead the way to better and more inclusive institutions in the pursuit of peaceful communities.
Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere
End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children
Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime
Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms
Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels
Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance
By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration
Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements
Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime
Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development
GOAL 17. PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE GOALS
Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
SDG 17 calls on governments to improve domestic capacities for revenue collection and resource mobilization, enhance policy coherence and the global partnership for sustainable development, promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, and increase the availability of reliable data and statistical capacity building in developing countries.
Local governments will be key players in strengthening partnerships and generating revenue to achieve sustainable development and the SDGs. Cities can work to achieve coherence among their policy objectives and utilize data to target interventions and programs. Local governments have long been leaders in global partnerships and innovative uses of technology to improve participatory processes and generate better outcomes for their communities.
The policies related to this goal in this platform are examples of work being undertaken in cities to improve and strengthen the means of implementation and support the global partnership for sustainable development.
Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection
Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries
Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources
Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress
Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countriesTechnology
Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism
Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed
Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology
Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation
Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda
Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020
Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence
Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence
Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development
Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries
Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships
By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries
* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.