+ BACKGROUND, CHALLENGES AND OBJECTIVES
DDP was built in an area where a fortress wall was once located to protect Hanyang during the Joseon Dynasty. However, the wall was to be demolished due to the development of modern weapons and tactics, new transportation means, and external expansion of the city. The demolition began in 1889 as a trolley railway was installed between Seodaemun and Cheongnyangni. The wall around Dongdaemun was destroyed in 1908 when a Japanese prince visited Seoul. Then a wall connecting Dongdaemun and Gwnaghwamun was destroyed, without any prior planning, to build Gyeongseong Sports Complex to celebrate the marriage of a Japanese crown prince during the Japanese Emperor Hirohito’s term in 1924. The wall was further destroyed by the construction of civilian housing. Demolition was accelerated by many unauthorized construction work in the area after Korea obtained independence and following the Korean War. The Dongdaemun commercial sphere started to develop at the same time a market autonomously emerged around Baeogae in the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty. Gwangjang Market was formed and developed as a modern market in 1905. The market became a hub for the clothing industry as well as a nationwide wholesale shopping district attributable to the numerous sewing factories built around Pyenghwa Market in the 1960s. A general fashion shopping mall named Miliore was built in 1998 when the new retail commercial sphere was formed as a marketplace offering the latest fashions at a low price.
Local traditional business people point out the lack of programs of the DDP to promote industries in the Dongdaemun area. The original objective was to develop the Dongdaemun area as a global fashion hub by utilizing DDP as a base where young designers and skilled sewers in Pyeonghwa Market and Changshindong can colloborate. In reality, DDP only serves as a venue for Seoul Fashion Week but not for other fashion programs. Moreover, the programs run by DDP are only focused on attractions such as exhibitions. There is a growing criticism that if DDP is operated as it is now, it will be difficult to promote the Dongdaemun commercial district and transform it to a design hub.
There is criticism that despite its architectural value, DDP destroyed the historical and spatial value of Dongdaemun. The memory of space and history about the Dongdaemun Sports Complex site is only represented in a small memorial hall of Dongdaemun History & Culture Park with some remains and stories scattered about. It is also criticized that the Fortress Wall of Seoul has not been fully restored under the shadow of the DDP building, and history could not be fully understood by relocating the Hadogam out of the fortress wall.
DDP was planned as a hub of complex cultural corridors to connect Daehakro, Heunginjimun Gate (Dongdaemun), and Mt. Namsan. This plan suggested to renovate Dongdaemum, whose functions had been degraded along with its aged facilities, into a downtown place of relaxation, as well as to build DDP as a global design and fashion industry hub to lead related cultural industries. The project was planned to promote commercial and cultural activities by setting up Dongdaemun fashion and cultural centers and connecting underground spaces while demolishing the aged Dongdaemun Sport Complex and develop a cultural space combining business and culture.
+ ACTIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION
The SMG established an organization for the DDP project with departments of the design & construction, operation preparation & promotion, and post-development operation.
Design & Construction: Cultural Facility Project Unit
Dongdaemun Design Park Manager of the Cultural Facility Project Unit was in charge of designing and building the DDP. The Cultural Facility Project Unit was responsible for building large structures of important city projects and managed the design, construction, and supervision of the International Nominated Design Competition for Invitees, civil engineering, construction, and equipment.
Operation Preparation & Promotion: Design Seoul Headquarters
The Design & Planning Officer and Promotion Officer were responsible for the operation preparation and promotion of the DDP. The Design Seoul Headquarters was responsible for the general administrative work of the Design Seoul policy and assumed full responsibility of operation preparation and promotion to ensure the DDP to serve the central function of the design development policy of Seoul.
Post-development Operation: Seoul Design Foundation
A professional, efficient, autonomous, and financially independent organization was established to operate the DDP as a global design center. The Design Seoul Foundation was established in March 2009, and is now responsible for the planning and implementation of various programs to support the design industry and promote design culture in Seoul, as well as the management and operation of DDP facilities.
Idea Contest for Citizens
Seoul held an idea contest to attract interest of citizens in the DDP project and to promote the purpose of the project. The contest was announced in November 2006; entries were received until December; and the result was announced in January 2007. There were 35 general participants and 45 professional participants (including corporate bodies), and the evaluation was based on the design concepts and overall designs. Based on the contest results, The SMG changed its original plan to entirely remove the sports complex. The revised plan included the partial preservation of the first modern sports facility in Korea and the creation of Dongdaemun Sports Complex Memorial Hall in DDP. It was also reflected in the guidelines for the International Nominated Design Competition for Invitees.
Introduction of Construction Administration (CA)
It was very complicated and difficult to draw up the blueprint of the DDP, which is primarily composed of curves and slopes in and out of building. Therefore, Seoul made an agreement with the DDP designer on CA to engage in the construction. CA is a supervisory process where the designer supervises the construction according to the drawings and specifications as a representative of the client. This cost an additional KRW 2 billion to the DDP construction.
+ OUTCOMES AND IMPACTS
Promotion of Design and Creative Industries
Seoul held the biggest ever Seoul Fashion Week with the opening of the DDP in March 2014, which would provide opportunities for rising designers to raise their profile and for top designers to improve their competitiveness and create business opportunities in home and abroad, leading to development of the Korean fashion industry.
Promotion of Tourism
It was reported that the floating population increased by at least 10% after the opening of the DDP. The number of foreign tourists is continually increasing as well. The SMG expects that more than half of the foreign tourists will visit Dongdaemun in the future.
New Paradigm of Urban Planning and Design
The DDP project was conducted through private and public cooperation such as DDP Operation Preparation Committee, DDP Planning & Coordination Group, Creative Process for Experts, and Expert Advisory Council. In addition, the city actively collected opinions of citizens through public policy workshops and idea contests. The DDP project was carried out through participation of different groups and agencies including Dongdaemun merchants, and collection of civil opinions. Indeed, it suggested a new paradigm for urban planning and design.
The project was the first case to introduce a nominated design competition in the public sector, helping upgrade the quality of public construction. It also adopted new management methods, such as Construction Administration (CA) and Construction Management (CM), for fair and transparent management of the entire process. The project contributed to the development of a standard work system for public building procurement
+ REPLICABILITY AND SCALABILITY
Scalability of the Project
The SMG is planning to hold fashion events including joint fashion shows and fashion fairs at DDP to promote the district and support to expand sales of Dongdaemun commercial district. Thanks to DDP, the district is expected to earn about KRW 881.7 billion(USD 825,021,053) and create 5,129 new jobs. Moreover, the expected revenue will be about KRW 210 billion (USD 196,500,421) in the neighboring commercial districts.
The Seoul Design Foundation has been developing and operating different business models including leasing, rental, and exhibition planning to improve the financial independence of the DDP after its opening. It is necessary to reinforce the financial independence capability for sustainable operation of the DDP. At the same time, consistent efforts and consideration are required to balance the public benefit to provide a creative experience to citizens for a reasonable price and profitability through development and operation of creative content and programs.
+ BUDGET AMOUNT
November 2006, Seoul held an idea contest to promote the DDP project and draw the interest of citizens. It was an opportunity for citizens to suggest their ideas to the International Nominated Design Competition for Invitees and thus to the DDP project. The design competition was announced in April 2007 and the design of architect, Zaha Hadid, won the competition in August of the same year. The demolition of the Dongdaemun Sports Complex began in April 2007, and Samsung C&T started construction in March 2009.
At the first time, total budget for the project was expected to be USD 351,733,833. However, the budget was increased to USD 470,676,833 when the project was completed.